Technical Appendix 1: The Data

We use the UK’s largest study on employment circumstances, the Labour Force Survey (LFS), drawing on analysis from the 2006 to 2022 releases (calendar quarters). We take a pseudo-longitudinal approach, where we analyse repeated cross-sectional data (Table 1). It is important to note the following:

  • We calculate the underemployment rate based on the employed population rather than the total active population. Between wave 2 (April-June) of 2020 and wave 1 (January-March) of 2022, sample sizes were significantly affected by the Covid-19 pandemic, potentially affecting results from this period.

  • From wave 2 (April-June) in 2011, the ethnicity variable was modified in accordance to Census data. In this report we have recorded the variable to ensure consistency across all quarters in the dataset.

  • The job arrangements have also been recorded to ensure consistency across all quarters in the dataset, as this variable was modified three times during the periods included in this analysis.

Table 1: Calendar quarters from 2006 to 2022
Population weights are used.
Source: UK Labour Force Survey.
1 Active population includes employed and unemployed persons