The data

This report maps underemployment trends for employees and self-employed workers aged 18 to 64 in the UK. We use the UK’s largest study on employment circumstances, the Labour Force Survey (LFS), drawing on analysis from 2006 to 2022.

We describe long-term trends in the prevalence, characteristics of and social inequalities in underemployment and its various dimensions.

The report first examines time-related underemployment, followed by skills underutilisation, and wage-related underemployment.

See Technical Appendix 1: The Data for more details.